A Paper Primer from Cambridge

The 2010-2011 Cambridge Bible catalog includes a worthwhile note on paper:

Because of their length, Bibles traditionally have been printed on very thin paper to ensure compact volumes. Nevertheless, paper in a Bible should have sufficient strength to sustain the usage it will receive. The best Bibles are printed on papers that are not only much thinner and finer than ordinary book papers, but are also strong and have good opacity so as to minimize "show-through" of printing on the reverse side. (Paper weighing below 30gsm ("20lb" in the US) is usually described as "India paper," and over 30gsm as "Bible paper.")

Cambridge Bibles are printed on high-quality lightweight paper, chosen to achieve the optimum readability for the minimum bulk. Various factors -- strength, thinness and opacity, and aesthetic qualities -- are considered in sourcing appropriate papers that meet internationally recognized environmental standards.

Some Cambridge reference Bibles have wide margins, so that owners can make notes against the Bible text. The paper used in these Bibles is chosen for its capacity to absorb handwritten notes and its improved resilience. Nevertheless, it is advisable to test pens and pencils on the paper before making extensive notes, to ensure that the ink flow is not so great as to bleed through the paper. Making notes in standard Bibles without wide margins in not recommended.

As basic primers go, I think that pretty much sums it up. The catalog includes entries on design, type, printing, sewing and binding, and much more.